Allergic Asthma – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Allergic asthma is the most common variety of asthma. About half of adult asthma patients and about 90% of children suffering from asthma have allergies. Symptoms of all types of asthma are similar. The only difference between allergic asthma and other types is the trigger that causes flare-ups. Allergic asthma is triggered by allergens and you can prevent flare-ups to a great extent if you take steps to avoid them.

Allergy and allergic asthma

The immune system protects the body against disease-causing microbes and other harmful substances that invade it. It is very good at identifying harmful pathogens and neutralizing them. In some people, the immune system mistakenly identifies an otherwise harmless substance as harmful. It becomes sensitive to the substance and exposure triggers an allergic reaction. Substances that trigger allergic reactions are called allergens.

When the person is exposed to an allergen, the immune system responds by taking steps to destroy, inactivate or expel it from the body. After the first exposure, it makes special proteins called Immunoglobulin E (IgE). They are antibodies and they remain in the body to protect against future invasions. The person has now become sensitive to the allergen. On subsequent exposures, the antibodies bind to the allergen and special cells called mast cells release a chemical called histamine.

Histamines have a dual role. They create inflammation, which produces the typical runny nose and irritation associated with an allergic reaction. This is designed to make the person itch, cough or sneeze, which allows the body to expel the allergen. Histamine and the inflammation it causes make it easier for white blood cells and other chemicals to arrive at the invasion site. Within minutes of exposure to the allergen, there is a full-fledged war going on.

Although allergic reaction is normally limited to itching, redness, soreness, watery nose and watering eyes, in some people, it can result in an asthma attack. The allergic reaction causes inflammation in the airways. Muscles surrounding the windpipe contract and narrow it down, which makes breathing difficult. In addition, excess mucus is secreted making breathing even more difficult. The symptoms are the same as any asthma attack: coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, rapid breathing and tightness in the chest.

You are at a higher risk of allergic asthma if you have allergy or a family history of allergy. Doctors can confirm whether you have allergic asthma and it is often possible to pinpoint the exact substances that trigger the attacks. Allergy diagnosis is usually done by testing your blood for IgE. Identification of the allergen is done with a skin test. A very minute amount of the suspected allergen is injected under your skin. The skin reaction to the allergen confirms if you are sensitive to the substance.

Common allergens that trigger asthma attacks

There are many allergens that can trigger an asthma attack. Some of them like mold spores, pollen and dust mites are tiny enough to be inhaled deep into the airways. Here are some common asthma triggers at home.

1. Pollen

Pollen is a common allergen and they are easily carried by air. Pollen is seasonal and pollen count tends to peak during flowering seasons. Once they are in your home, they can circulate through the air ducts, settle on surfaces and remain throughout the year.

2. Dust mites

Dust mites are tiny creatures belonging to the spider family. They are invisible to the naked eye and live in clothes and fabric materials like carpets, beds, stuffed toys, blankets and upholstery. They feed on skin flakes that people shed. While they don’t cause any direct harm, their body parts and droppings are potent allergens.

3. Mold

Mold and mildew grow on moist surfaces. Mold is common in soil, dead plant parts, wood and other organic garbage. Inside your home, wet walls, damp basements and corners are ideal places for mold growth. Molds produce fine spores, which are easily carried by air and inhaled. They are common allergy triggers.

4. Pet dander

Pet dander is a combination of dried pet skin and saliva. Besides dander, fur, body fluids and litter of pets can also trigger an allergic reaction. People who come in contact with animals often act as carriers for animal dander. So, dander may find its way into your home even if you don’t have pets.

5. Cockroach droppings and parts

The extent of the problem varies, but most urban homes have cockroaches. Their droppings, saliva and body parts can trigger allergy.

Avoiding allergens

It is impossible to completely eliminate exposure to allergens, but you can definitely take steps to minimize it. Here are some tips to get you started.

1. Avoid airborne allergens

If you are sensitive to pollen, stay indoors. Use a high-quality air filter that is compatible with your HVAC system. Change air filters on time because dusty air filters make matters worse.

2. Avoid dust mites

Wash bed linen regularly in hot water to clear dust and kill dust mites. Store washed linen in washable covers. Get rid of carpets, heavy curtains and furnishings that are difficult to clean and accumulate dust. Buy only washable stuffed toys and wash them regularly. Vacuum regularly.

3. Keep humidity at optimum levels

Too much humidity encourages spread of airborne infections, mold growth and cockroach infestation. Don’t use evaporative coolers or room humidifiers. Instead, use an air-conditioner for cooling and a whole-home humidifier in winter. Fix any plumbing or roof leaks without delay.

4. Avoid pets

If you have pets and are allergic to pet dander, finding a new home for them is the best option. If that is not possible, keep them outdoors or at least away from the bedrooms. Wash your hands and face thoroughly after interacting with pets.

5. Pest control

Keep your kitchen clean and clear the garbage every day to discourage cockroaches. Contact a pest control service to get rid of cockroaches using gels, which don’t deteriorate indoor air quality.

6. Use a HEPA mask

If you have to go into a dusty environment or engage in an activity that stirs up dust like cleaning or gardening, use a HEPA mask. Wash your hands and face thoroughly after the activity.

Treatment for allergic asthma

Allergic asthma is treated like other types of asthma with an asthma action plan. As allergic asthma is triggered by allergic reactions, preventing it can also prevent asthma attacks.

There are generally two types of treatments for allergy, both of which are designed to reduce your body’s sensitivity to allergens. The first is called immunotherapy. In this method, you have to take regular allergy shots containing very minute amounts of the allergen. This type of controlled exposure gradually desensitizes the immune system to the substance and prevents it from triggering allergic reactions. This process can take up to five years.

The second line of treatment is called anti-immunoglobulin therapy. Drugs that interfere with the production of IgE or the mechanism of IgE functioning are used to suppress the immune system response. Both these treatments have to be carefully done under the supervision of your doctor.

The best natural method of controlling allergic asthma is to avoid exposure to allergens and airborne irritants. If you prevent allergic reactions, you are in effect preventing asthma flare-ups. When symptoms or flare-ups do occur, they have to be treated according to your asthma action plan. It is also important to avoid airborne irritants like fumes, smoke and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). They can make your symptoms worse or cause airway inflammation. VOCs can be avoided by using environment-friendly paints and other green construction materials. To learn more, download our free quick guide to green and healthy homes here https://twitter.com/EbenGreenHomes.

Common Causes of Asthma Attacks and How to Avoid Them

Asthma is a chronic disease and there is no cure, but it can be managed. There are many causes of asthma, but most of them are beyond your control. Asthma attacks are a result of exposure to certain substances and circumstances. These are called asthma triggers and they can also make an attack worse. Once you know your asthma triggers, you can take steps to avoid them. Sometimes exposure to an asthma trigger is not possible, but you can still take precautions to avoid an asthma flare-up.

Avoid allergens

Allergens are the most common triggers of asthma attacks. Avoiding the allergen is the best way to prevent these attacks. Here are some things that you should consider.

1. Adjust your lifestyle

Dust and smoke are frequent asthma triggers, but you can avoid attacks by making lifestyle adjustments. Avoid restaurants and public places that allow smoking. When you travel or book a hotel room, try to find carriers and hotels that don’t permit smoking. Carry clean bed sheets and pillowcases with you while travelling. If your hotel room has bedding or upholstery that can harbor dust mites, you can use the sheets to cover them and minimize your exposure.

2. Be careful with pets

Pet dander is a common allergy trigger. The amount of dander depends on the animal and its breed. Proteins present in animal saliva, urine, skin, hair and litter can also trigger asthma attacks. Not keeping pets is the best option, but if that’s not possible, you can take steps to minimize problems.

From an asthma point of view, pets are best kept outdoors. If you have an indoor pet, try to keep it out of your bedrooms, study or any other places where you spend a lot of time. Keep pets off sofas, beds and carpets. Regular grooming will prevent overgrowth of fur, which is a common asthma trigger. Check with your vet and bathe your pet as frequently as possible. Vacuum twice a day to prevent accumulation of dander. Wash your hands thoroughly after playing with or handling your pet.

3. Control pests

Pest remains and droppings are common asthma triggers. Cockroaches are a common problem in most houses. Take steps to keep your home cockroach free. You can discourage cockroaches by keeping food closed and preventing garbage from accumulating. Clear the garbage before dusk to avoid attracting cockroaches. Clean the kitchen regularly to clear pest droppings or other pest debris.

If you have a serious pest problem, call a pest control agency. They will use gels and other methods to get rid of cockroaches. You can also use baits and traps to keep their numbers in check. Avoid using toxic pesticides, especially the type that has to be sprayed. The smell and fumes of these pesticides can also trigger attacks.

4. Mold

Mold, mold spores and mildew are potent asthma triggers. High humidity encourages their growth. They grow more aggressively in dark and damp areas. Mold can grow in invisible corners and areas in your home without your being aware of it. It is, therefore, important to prevent conditions that favor mold growth. Keep humidity in check by using a dehumidifier and use exhaust fans in bathrooms.

Prevent conditions for mold growth by fixing leaks as soon as possible. Garments should be dried completely, preferably in sunlight. If you see any signs of mold, have it removed quickly. If mold cannot be fully removed from a garment, discard it. Mold growth is common in towels, shower curtains, damp walls and firewood.

5. Dust mites

Dust mites live on fabric materials like curtains, upholstery and carpets. Their droppings are common asthma triggers. Dust mites are very difficult to eliminate, but you can minimize the problem. Using dust-proof covers and pillow wraps will contain the problem to a great extent. Wash curtains and linen in hot water at least once in a week to kill the mites.

6. Pollen and dust

Pollen is often the trigger for seasonal asthma attacks. If your attacks are seasonal, check which plants are blooming only during that period. An allergist will be able to help you identify the exact cause. Remove the offending plants from your surroundings if possible. Avoid going outdoors during seasons during which the pollen count is high.

Use an air conditioner with a suitably high MERV-rated air filter to keep dust and pollen in check. Keep air filters clean and change them on time. Using dirty filters can be counterproductive. Avoid carpets because they harbor dust and dust mites. It is better to use hardwood floors.

Manage airborne irritants

Substances like smoke and perfumes have the ability to irritate the airways. In asthma patients, this can cause inflammation of the respiratory tract and trigger an attack. Here are some common irritants and what you can do about them.

1. All types of smoke

Smoke from any source is an airway irritant and must be avoided. Avoid using wood fireplaces, incense sticks and coal grills at home. Stay away from smoky areas. If you have asthma, you must avoid exposure to cigarette smoke. Don’t allow people to smoke inside your home, office or car. If someone must smoke, they should do it outside away from doors and windows. Secondhand smoke and the smell of tobacco on clothes and upholstery can also irritate the airways. Encourage people to wash their hands well after smoking or any contact with tobacco products.

2. Fumes

Fumes from fuel, gas, kerosene stoves, oil furnaces and vehicle exhausts can trigger asthma. Most combustion stoves produce nitrogen dioxide. It is an invisible and odorless gas, but is a potent airway irritant. Stoves and cooking areas should be properly ventilated. Use stoves according to the manufacturer’s instructions and maintain them well. Use exhaust fans or electric chimneys in kitchens. Get your furnace serviced before every heating season.

3. Household chemicals

Chemicals commonly used in homes such as detergents, soaps, cleaners and pesticides can trigger attacks in some people. Paints, polishes and lacquers that give off volatile organic compounds are also common asthma triggers. Avoid using these chemicals if you have asthma. Avoid areas where these chemicals have been used until the odor subsides. Using environment-friendly home construction products and cleaners is the best option.

4. Fragrances

Strong perfumes can trigger asthma attacks in some people. Use products with mild or no fragrance. Avoid spraying room fresheners, wearing perfumes or burning incense sticks. If you must use these products, do it when the person suffering from asthma is not at home and keep windows open during and after use.

Respiratory ailments

Respiratory ailments like cold and flu is a common asthma trigger, especially in children. If you have asthma, take regular vaccinations for influenza and pneumonia. Avoid going near people suffering from cold and flu. You can also use an appropriate mask to reduce the risk of infection. Germs causing respiratory illnesses can survive on surfaces like doorknobs. If someone at home has cold or flu, wash your hands with soap several times a day and clean surfaces with a disinfectant. Dry air in winter can make the spread of these infections easier. Use a humidifier to maintain the optimum humidity.

Foods and food additives

If you are sensitive to artificial colors, flavors and food preservatives, avoid processed foods. Identify the offending chemicals and check the label carefully before deciding to consume processed foods.

Acidity

If your asthma attacks get triggered due to heartburn, avoid foods that cause too much acidity. Reduce consumption of tea, coffee and fried foods. Your doctor may also prescribe medicines to keep acidity in check.

Drugs

Certain drugs can trigger asthma attacks. If you suspect that you are sensitive to a particular drug, see your doctor. Your doctor will identify the problem and give you a better alternative.

Asthma is a difficult disease, but it can be controlled if you take some extra care to avoid the cause of asthma attacks. Chemicals present in many home construction products are harmful. Living in an environment-friendly home and using green products can prevent many asthma attacks. For more information, download our quick guide now https://business.facebook.com/EbenezerGreenHealthierHomes/.

What causes asthma and how can it be prevented

In the US, about 25 million people suffer from asthma attacks. More than a quarter of those affected are children. Asthma patients lose a large number of work and school days due to these attacks every year. Asthma is a troublesome, chronic and incurable disease, but it can be controlled. You can reduce the frequency and intensity of asthma attacks if you understand what causes asthma and what triggers the attacks.

Asthma – Basic information

The onset of asthma can occur at any age, but in most cases, symptoms start during early childhood. Although there is no cure, asthma attacks can be treated effectively. There are two types of asthma attacks: allergic and non-allergic. Allergic asthma is triggered by a substance that the body is sensitive to. An allergist may be able to help identify the allergen and prevent some of these attacks.

A typical asthma attack causes sudden shortness of breath accompanied by raspy cough, wheezing and tightness in the chest. This is due to the sudden constriction of bronchial tubes, which impedes smooth airflow to and from the lungs and makes breathing difficult and painful. An asthma attack can be triggered by allergens or due to a normal change in breathing pattern. The circumstances that trigger attacks can also make it worse.

Understanding the causes of Asthma

Although the exact causes of asthma are not known, a combination of genetic and environmental factors puts people at higher risk. Here are the six common causes of asthma.

1. Family history

Research shows that the probability of getting asthma is very high in children if one or both parents suffer from asthma. Asthma risk also increases if there is a history of eczema or allergies in the family.

2. Mother smoking during pregnancy

Studies show that a child is at higher risk of asthma if the mother smoked during pregnancy.

3. Birth circumstances

Children who are born prematurely and those who needed ventilator support immediately after birth are at higher risk of asthma. Children who are significantly underweight at birth are also at higher risk,

4. Brochiolitis, eczema or allergy

People who have a history of bronchiolitis, allergy or eczema are at higher risk of asthma.

5. Regular exposure to cigarette smoke

Exposure to cigarette smoke, especially secondhand smoke, can increase the risk of asthma. People living in families in which one or more members smoke are at higher risk of asthma compared to others.

6. Hormonal changes in women

Women sometimes develop asthma just before or after menopause due to hormonal changes.

Asthma triggers

While the causes described above can make you prone to asthma, the actual asthma attack usually follows a triggering event. People with asthma have very sensitive airways that can easily become inflamed resulting in an attack. The circumstances or events that precipitate these attacks are called asthma triggers. Each patient has his or her own set of triggers. Circumstances that trigger an attack in one person may not cause any problem for another. Here are some common asthma triggers.

1. Allergens

Airborne allergens like dust, dust mites, pollen, mold spores, pet dander, pest droppings and cockroach waste can trigger an asthma attack if you are sensitive to them. The solution is to minimize exposure by removing these contaminants from indoor air. This can be done with good quality air cleaners. Using vacuum cleaners and microfiber cloth to keep surfaces clean can also make a huge difference.

2. Airborne irritants

Some substances can cause irritation of the respiratory tract. This can happen for anyone, but for people with asthma, it can trigger an attack. Smoke from wood fires, barbecue grills, incense sticks and cigarettes can irritate the respiratory tract. Outdoor conditions like smog and the presence of ozone are also possible triggers. Strong odors like perfumes, room fresheners and scents from soaps or incense can also trigger asthma in some people. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are potent asthma triggers and they are often present in wood finishes, paint and other chemicals commonly used for home construction. The solution is to switch to safer alternatives.

3. Respiratory ailments

Cold and dry air can make it easier for infections like cold, flu, sore throats and sinusitis to take hold. These winter illnesses are often the most common asthma triggers. Children are more vulnerable than adults.

4. Physical exertion

Physical activity changes the breathing rate. In some people, this can cause the airways to constrict and trigger an attack. This is called exercise-induced asthma. Intense physical activity like jogging in cold weather is also known to trigger asthma attacks in many patients. The symptoms may not appear immediately during or after the activity.

5. Strong emotions

Common emotions like anger, fear and excitement can trigger asthma in some patients. Laughing loudly, shouting or crying can also trigger an attack. The change in breathing rate caused by strong emotions is the possible cause.

6. Drugs

Some medicines like aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs, painkillers and beta blockers may trigger asthma attacks. If a particular drug has triggered asthma in the past, inform your doctor or chemist so that it can be replaced with harmless alternatives.

7. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

Conditions like acidity or acid reflux force stomach acid back up into the food pipe and throat. This causes irritation of the throat and airways and may trigger asthma attacks.

8. Food additives

Food additives such as preservatives, artificial colors and flavors added to foods may trigger asthma attacks. Processed foods that can be stored at room temperature, for example, canned foods, potatoes, shrimp and dried fruits, are more likely to contain preservatives. If you get an attack after consuming processed foods, try to identify the ingredient that could have caused the problem and avoid foods with that ingredient.

If you know what causes asthma in your case, you can do something about it. Asthma is a debilitating disease and causes a lot of distress, but it can be managed. The causes of asthma are often beyond your control, but you can definitely minimize asthma attacks. Learn to identify the conditions or chemicals that could be triggering your asthma attacks here https://business.facebook.com/EbenezerGreenHealthierHomes/. These chemicals are often right inside your home. Download this free guide to make your home green and healthier. Using environment-friendly products will prevent many asthma attacks.

Diamond Engagement rings and bracelets in Hong Kong

In today’s generation, bracelets are used as a fashion accessory by both, men & women. Bracelets have lately gathered attention for their unique designs and varied patterns. Bracelets are one such part piece of jewellery which is popular among people of all age groups. These are the easiest available styling accessories. Without pinching pockets much, these can be bought at reasonable and affordable prices. However, certain bracelets made from gold, platinum, diamonds, etc. do touch the wallets heavily. However, diamond engagement ring in Hong Kong is by far the most popular jewelry in Hong Kong.

Diamond engagement ring in Hong Kong and bracelets add’s charm to one’s personality, gives confidence to the person wearing it, makes hands look delicate & good, and becomes a style statement. Diamond is always considered as a women’s best friend, and diamond bracelet adds to it by being a fashion statement. People can flaunt wearing the gorgeous looking bracelets.

1. Simple diamond bracelet:

Even though being on the expensive side, a simple diamond bracelet is always a prized possession for every woman. They could have received it on an occasion, or it would have been fought from their first salary. As it is with diamonds in general, the diamond bracelet also has memories attached to it. The first bracelet could also have been just a few diamonds on a golden charm. Even though being simple, these could be elegant on the hands.

2. Diamond Bracelets on white base:

Diamonds cannot be denied by anyone, be it men or women. Diamond bracelets on which base becomes a masterpiece in one’s jewellery trousseau. Shine, cuts and brilliant look of diamonds on a white based bracelet cannot be matched with any other look. This becomes a perfect evening party wear accessory.

3. Bracelets of diamonds in a gift box:

Diamond bracelets are the best options for wedding gifts or as gifts for special occasions like anniversaries, birthdays, any career achievements, etc. These boxes become the perfect magic box which every woman or men would love to open. As mentioned above, diamond bracelets are liked by people of every age group.

4. Diamond bracelets made of silver

Just the way diamonds go good with gold & platinum, they go equally well with silver. Girls love silver the way they love gold and silver. Diamond bracelet with sterling silver makes look every hand lovely. These can be for women as well as men. These charms can have stars, hearts, or any other objects hanging. The bracelets also have the option to have the name inscribed strategically on it along with diamond.

5. Chain Diamond Bracelets

Chain bracelets are perfect wear for regular wear. When diamonds are added to them, it makes them look even more beautiful. Such bracelets can be everyday wear as well as an accessory for special occasions. These could be made of a solitaire or a few diamonds placed on the chain in a pattern. These are the best bet for kids, teenagers, young working women, etc. on their delicate wrists.

6. Infinity Bracelets:

The word infinite means infinite, i.e. having no end. The same is with the look of these bracelets. They are fabulous and can catch anyone’s attention. The bracelets are made with a loop of rings, stars, hearts etc. The infinite look is the highlight of the piece. They look stunning even when made like a thing bracelet with diamonds placed on it, or a thick one with many diamonds to add flash & spark.

7. Designer Bracelets

These bracelets which look spectacular are the best accessory to show status and fashion style. These are the ones which make page 3 highlight when worn by a celebrity or appear in a fashion magazine. The designer pieces which have a brand image associated with it give an astounding look. These are spotted in all the high-end gatherings, lunches, dinners, and fashion circuits.

8. Rose Gold Diamond Bracelets

Rose gold is an alloy of gold & copper, used widely in jewellery making. With people feeling bored of orange coloured gold, rose gold jewellery has become very popular and is used commonly for every type of jewellery ranging from rings, necklaces, bracelets, etc. Depending upon the copper content, the base becomes either rose gold or pink gold.

9. Diamonds with Sapphire

Sapphire is a shiny, blue coloured sparkling stone signifying class and royalty. Blue itself signifies royalty. The combination of diamonds and Sapphire gives a uniquely beautiful look, which when worn with a gown in the evening occasion, catches the eyes of others around.

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Diamond Jewelry in Hong Kong

Through the use of colored enamels and inspired by the Barnhouse Stone one had incorporated ideas it into earring design competition as well as included designs for the necklace and also bracelet fastenings.

Judges, which include Managing Director as well Director of Scotland Redesigned certain things and Historic Environment of Scotland which also named students as runner-up for each of their pendant design inspired by the Viking dragon stone carving ideas within the tomb of Maeshowe. Diamond engagement ring in Hong Kong for branded ones are often quite expensive.

Head of Business Development or Enterprise at Historic Environment Scotland with members of the competition judging panel, said that the standard of design entries was amazing and incredibly high and it was also fantastic to get a real smooth insight into all emerging design talent within the Scotland.

Definitely, judging wasn’t an easy task but we were also particularly impressed with the innovative approach and it was great to see that how one used an archaeological field survey of drawings to spark creative processes. Across the board, there were the design submissions which were so strong that all of them decided to select a runner-up and also chose clients for necklace design who is based on the Viking dragon stone carving. the curving in most of the diamond engagement rings in Hong Kong is quite delicate.

There are Jewelry Design Graduate types of course which can bring out each individual’s innate creativity, helping the enthusiasts to design super with ability or confidence. It makes the simple apprentice designer learn all the basics which are needed and also explains complexities of designing any odd type of jewellery that also along with ideas of estimating its cost. Through the practical work, the designers are very much assisted to simply express the unknown and hidden creativity just by designing a good and worth portfolio of one’s own styles.

It includes the introduction to jewellery and its related components withdrawing or also the illustration of faceted or non-faceted gemstones. They also include settings in jewellery types. Also, textures on metal are incorporated. Designing all various forms of basic jewellery is also included in it. Gold calculations are a unique thing which one should know it. Budgeting of all this jewellery designs or creativity is the formula tricks. Pricing of all such diamonds or coloured stones is highlighted. Use of simple tools is the most important thing for effective design. Two-day workshops are done which is related to handcrafted jewellery and designing a super portfolio or also Gold and diamond or craftsmanship calculations which are available in India or U.A.E.

Career Options in such fields are the IGI graduates who must have pursued their careers in the field of gem or jewellery industry mostly just became they are jewellery designer or freelancer and jeweller or sometimes jewellery manufacturer or entrepreneur or can be jewellery retailer, etc.

Diamond Jewellery design is nothing but the art or the profession process of all designing as well as creating jewellery. This is one of the most of one all civilisation’s earliest making forms of all decoration and dating back at least to seven thousand years to the cutest and oldest known human societies in and around Mesopotamia or Egypt. The art has been taken in many forms all throughout the centuries from all the simple beadwork of all the good ancient times to the full sophisticated metal working for teams along with gem cutting teams which were known in the modern day.

Before the creation of an article of jewellery, design concepts which were rendered and followed by slow detailed technical drawings which are generated by all jewellery designer and a professional team of people who is trained in the major architectural or functional knowledge of all materials as well fabrication techniques with composition and wearability as well as market trends.

Traditional methods of hand-drawing techniques and drafting method techniques are also still very much utilised in designing diamond jewellery , particularly and clearly at all the major conceptual stages. However, all shifts are taking place to new ways of computer-aided design programs such as Rhinoceros 3D or Matrix. The traditionally hand-illustrated based jewel is such typically translated with easy ways into the wax as well metal directly by a super skilled craftsman or a CAD model which is generally used as the normal basis for a type of CNC cut or also 3D printed ‘wax’ named patterns.

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